Rarotonga Genealogies Part III
THE following notes have been written by Te-aia, our corresponding member in Rarotonga. They are a continuation of papers on the same subject published in the first volume of this Journal, which dealt with the migrations of Makea-Karika and Tangiia to that Island about 24 generations ago. These notes deal with migrations prior to those just named, and which appear to have come from Iva, or, as it is believed to be, Nukuhiva, or Hivaoa in the Marquesas Group.
The Avaiki mentioned, is probably Savaii in Samoa, but it may also be intended for Hawaii of the Sandwich Islands, between which place and the Marquesas Group frequent communication took place about the epoch of these migrations. Te-aia has requested us to keep back another paper he has written, dealing with other lines of descent from the original immigrants, until he can supplement the information contained therein.
Our fellow member, Mr. J. T. Large, while in Rarotonga last year, took notes of the names of the existing tribes and sub-tribes now living in the Island, which are interesting as they retain many of the names of the original immigrants mentioned by Te-aia; they are now adopted as tribal names, according to Polynesian custom. These names are as follows:—
Hapus, or sub-tribes of the Ngati-makea (ariki) tribe: Ngaio, Karika, Vakatini, Vaka, Para, Ara-iti, Apai, Kamoe, Te-puretu, Te-ava, Te-rare, Tumataiapo.
Hapus of the Ngati-tinomana (ariki) tribe: Tue, Kaiua, Para Tapae, Makirau, Vaimutu, Tautu, Pakau, and Tahuhu-o-te-rangi.
Hapus of the Ngati-tangiia (ariki) tribe: Tau, Tangiau, Taraare, Pa, Koro, Tamatea, Tuakana, Ava, Anga, Ta, Kiriparu, Tamarua, Moate, Vaikai, Kainuku, Manava-roa, Te-aia, Uirangi, Nia, Te-ao, Noorangi, Te-rei, Raina, Te-puna, Kautai, Te-makeu, Pokia, and Paroro.
The word Ngati, meaning “offspring of,” precedes each name.
In the translation I have endeavoured to adhere to the Rarotongan text as nearly as possible, and have received much assistance from a translation kindly made by Mr. Henry Nicholas, of Rarotonga, and which avoids the abruptness of style of my translation, and of the original. Dr. Wyatt Gill has kindly looked over the translation of “Nga tere i muri ake ia Tongaiti,” and corrected both it and the text. The responsibility for any errors rests with me.
I Papa ia ai e, e enua ko Avaiki. E ariki, ko Tu-te-rangi-marama—koia a Tu i Tahiti. Tu-te-rangi-marama, ko Tamarua ïa i Rarotonga nei. E tumu okotai to ratou mei Avaiki mai; e tae ua mai ki Tahiti, koia a Tongaiti, e tae ua mai ki Rarotonga nei—ko taua Tongaiti1 rai.
Teia to Tamarua uanga i Tahiti, ko Tu—koia a Pomare i Tahiti. Ka riro a Te-aia, e Tamarua ei tupuna no Pomare i Tahiti.
Teia to Tamarua tuatapapa anga tupuna ki Rarotonga nei:—
|1 Ko Tamarua-nui,2 ka noo i te vaine, ia Aumea-ki-aitu; anau tana:—|
|” Tamarua-paï||=||Te-upoko-teteva a Te-oropa|
|5 ” Tamarua-viritai||=||Kairoro-upoko3 a Ati-uaeke|
|” Tamarua-io-tini||=||Te-mearangi a Io4|
|” Tamarua-tauaki||=||Te-rangi a Mokare|
|” Tamarua-une||=||Maine-iti-ati i Vaepae|
|10 ” Tamarua-te-ariki-e-raka||=||Tamaoru a Rongo-te-aukuru|
|” Tamarua-atero||=||Tumai a Makea|
|” Tamarua-te-angai||=||Tepaeru-ariki a Tauira-ariki|
|” Tamarua-miti-rima||=||Te-uira a Taria-a-Makea|
|15 ” Tuariki||=||Nga-mau-tapikipiki a Tamaiva|
|” Tamarua-tei-vao||=||Pia a Tangiia-au i Arorangi|
|20 ” Putunga||=||Taumata|
|” Te-ua-takiri||=||Tepaeru a Te-aia|
|” Tamarua-orometua5||=||Mata a Tamatea|
|” Pitimani-orometua||=||Ukura a Tamakeu|
|25 ” Poritaunga|
Ko to Tamarua ïa uanga i Rarotonga nei; tei a Pomare te tuatapapa anga i tona uanga i Tahiti.
Teia te au mataiapo i aru mai ia ratou, i muri ake ia ratou, ko te uanga o Naea.6 E ui ariki anake ratou i Avaiki—e Ngati-tongaiti anake ratou. No reira i aere mai ei ratou ki Rarotonga nei—no Tongaiti. Teia to ratou ingoa:—
- Ko Te-aia
- ” Tamarua
- ” Kainuku
- ” Tongaiti7
Ko ratou tei tae mua mai ana ki te enua nei.
Teia to ingoa o te au mataiapo i aru mai i muri ake ia ratou:—Ko Kiriparu, ko Te-ariki-mana (koia a Vakapora), ko Koro, ko Ara-iti, ko Ta, ko Apai, ko Manava-roa, ko Nia, ko Te-eiao, ko Tara-apai, ko Tai-ope, ko Te-tika, ko Tinorua, ko Tamatea, ko Tuakana, ko Noorangi, 19 ratou.8
Te enua e noo ei to ratou metua ko Naea, ko Arava ïa i Paumotu. Nga tamariki kino a Naea, ko Tiori, e Tunatu.9 A Tunatu, ko Marietoa ïa i Samoa. Ko Tiori, ko Pomare ïa i Tahiti.
Ko taua aronga nei tei tae mua mai ana ki runga ki te enua nei, ko Rarotonga. E ui ariki anake ratou. Ko Tongaiti te ariki i runga ia ratou10
The ancestor was Papa; the land was Avaiki. The chief was Tu-te-rangi-marama; hence is Tu of Tahiti. From Tu-te-rangimarama also (descended) Tamarua of Rarotonga. Theirs is a single stem even from Avaiki; it extends to Tahiti and to Rarotonga, and is named the Tongaiti (clan), the same (name) Tongaiti1(pertains to both).
This is Tamarua's connection in Tahiti, viz., Tu—whence is Pomare, at Tahiti. Both Te-aia and Tamarua were ancestors of Pomare at Tahiti.
The following is the ancestral genealogy (of the family) at Rarotonga:—
|1 Tamarua-nui,2 married a woman named Aumea-ki-aitu|
|who had Tamarua-okitini,||who married Otu-atu-rangi|
|” Tamarua-paï,||” Te Upoko-teteva, daughter of Te-oropa|
|” Tamarua-keu,||” Maevarau-atu|
|5 ” Tamarua-viritai,||” Kairoro-upoko,3 daughter of Ati-ueke|
|” Tamarua-okirua,||” Te-aruru-o-te-rangi|
|” Tamarua-io-tini,||” Te-mearangi, daughter of Io4|
|” Tamarua-tauaki,||” Te-rangi, daughter of Mokare|
|” Tamarua-une,||” Maine-iti-ati, of Vaepae|
|10 ” Tamarua-te-ariki-e-raka,||” Tamaoru, daughter of Rongo-te-au-kura|
|” Tamarua-atero,||” Tumai, daughter of Makea|
|” Tairi-ki-te-rangi,||” Marae-kura-te-urukura|
|” Tamarua-angai,||” Tepaeru-ariki, daughter of Tauira-ariki|
|” Tamarua-miti-rima,||” Te-uira, daughter of Taria-a-Makea|
|15 ” Tuariki||” Ngamau-tapikipiki, daughter of Tamaiva|
|” Tamarua-tei-vao||” Pia, daughter of Tangiia-au, of Arorangi|
|” Tamarua-pei-kura,||” Te-ei-tuputupu|
|” Tamarua-puangi,||” Tepaeru-ariki|
|” Tamarua-te-mato,||” Rangi-au|
|20 ” Putunga,||” Taumata|
|” Tumurakau,||” Tu-te-ana|
|” Te-ua-takiri,||” Tepaeru, daughter of Te-aia|
|” Tamarua-orometua,5||” Mata, daughter of Tamatea|
|” Pitimani-orometua,||” Ukura, daughter of Tamakeu|
|25 ” Poritaunga.|
The above is the line of descent of Tamarua in Rarotonga; Pomare has the genealogy of his family at Tahiti.
These are the mataiapos, or chiefs, who followed after them—viz., the family (or clan) of Naea.6 They were all ariki (great chiefs) in Avaiki, and all belonged to the Ngati-tongaiti tribe. It was because of Tongaiti that they came to Rarotonga. These are their names:—
It was they who first came to this land.
These are the names of the mataiapos, or chiefs, who followed after them:—Kiriparu, Te-ariki-mana (surnamed Vakapora), Koro, Ara-iti, Ta, Apai, Manava-roa, Nia, Te-eiao, Tara-apai, Taiope, Te-tika, Tinorua, Tamatea, Tuakana and Noorangi—nineteen in all.8- 274
The land in which their ancestor, Naea, stayed at (on his way here) was Arava, in the Paumotu Group. Naea had two quarrelsome children named Tiori and Tunatu.9 The descendant of Tunatu is Malietoa, at Samoa. Tiori's descendant is Pomare, at Tahiti. It was the before mentioned company of people who first came to this land of Rarotonga. They were all of them ariki or great chiefs, but Tongaiti was the ariki over them all.10
Mr. Henry Nicholas has been good enough to supply the following notes explanatory of the above brief history:—
Teia ano nga Tere ra: Ko Apopo-to-ivi-roa; e tangata roa. No te Atu-apai aia; e Tere tamaki tona. Na te tini o Iva aia i ta, mate atura.
I muri ake i aia—ia Apopo—ko to tini o Iva ïa. E Tore tamaki to ratou; ko Nga-peinga te ingoa; pou atu ra ia tini i a Kainuku, e Te-aia, i te ta, oki atura tetai pae ki Iva, kua mate tetai pae.
I muri ake ia ratou, ko te Marangai-riki ïa te ingoa; na te tangata o Rarotonga nei ia i ta.- 275
Teia to ratou ravenga i kimi ei tauturu ia ratou; kua tipu aere ratou i te rakau i roto i te ngai tamaki anga; kua akarite mei te tangata nei te roa, e kua akarakei aere i te rau uru, e kua atu i te pare tamaki ki runga o te upoko; mei te tangata ra te tu; e oti ake ra ta ratou angaanga kua po. I taua po ra, kua aere maira te Marangai-riki e tamaki ia ratou; kua tamaki akera ratou ia ratou; e pou iora ratou i te taia, i taua po ra. Kara roa tetai i ora. Tei Avarua na taua kainga ra, ko te Ara-tu-pau te ingoa.
I muri ake i tei reira, i tae mai ei a Tangiia ki te enua nei, e Karika. I kake mai a Tangiia i Vai-kokopu ki uta. I kake mai a Karika i Murivai ki uta. I noo a Tangiia ki Tauna-rangi, ko te ingoa ïa i te kainga i noo ei aia i tona taeanga mai ki te enua nei i Ngatangiia. E oro mate mai aia ki Rarotonga nei. Te umuumu ra tona tuakana iaia, e ta kia mate. Tera te ara, ko te atava-kuru o to raua tuaine, o Rakanui, i kainga ïa e Tutapu. Ka riri a Tangiia i reira, auraka a Tutapu e kai i taua atava-kuru ra; ko te tumu ïa i ta raua tamaki, i oro mai ei a Tangiia ki Rarotonga nei. E oro mate mai, kare e aere mai ma te taoonga ariki, e kitea atu ei e ariki aia.
I aere ua mai aia, ma nga tamariki; koia a Tinomana, e Te-rei, e Pa; e tamaiti rave aia na Tangiia. Ko Iro tona metua i anau ïa aia i ako te ariki ïa i Vavau a Iro; ko te metua ïa o Pa, e ariki tau Vavau aia, e nga mataiapo i aru mai iaia; ko ratou tetai pae mataiapo e noo nei i roto i te enua nei ko Rarotonga. Tei topaia e Tangiia ki tona ingoa ki te Ngati-tangiia. Kua kapiti mai aia i te aronga i aere mua mai ana ki te enua nei ei tangata nona, e kua akariro iaia e ana puke tamariki ei ariki ki runga ki te an mataiapo o Tongaiti e to Tangiia puke mataiapo kua tu okotaiia eia ki raro ake iaia.
Teia te angaanga mua ta Tangiia i rave i tona taenga mai ki te enua nei. Kua auia i te marae ki Avarua. E oti ake ra taua marae ra, kua topaia i te ingoa i taua marae ra ko Iti-aka-raua; kua tuku a Tangiia i tei reira marae kia Kainuku, nana e tiaki; kua akatu te rua; e oti akera, ka topa a Tangiia i te ingoa ko Iti-anga-te-ra. Kua tukua a Tangiia i tei reira marae kia Kainuku nana e tiaki; kua akapera a Tangiia i te au aereanga i tona au marae, a tae ua mai ki Avarua, ma te tuku aere i te tiaki.
Ko te au mataiapo na i tae mua mai ana ki te enua nei, na ratou uaorai to ratou au marae i akatu aere, e te ingoa i to ratou an marae ko te au ingoa rai i to ratou au marae mei Avaiki mai e tae ua mai ki Rarotonga nei. Ko te ingoa pu marae o to ratou ai tupuna ko to ratou ïa i taoi mai kia kore ratou e ngaro.
Te vai ake ra ïa i Tahiti, e Paumotu, i tetai enua atu i teianei tuatau; kare ua e ngaro.
Kua iki a Tangiia i nga tama ei ariki tetai, ei mataiapo tetai. Koia a Tino-mana e Te-rei, e ariki rai a Pa, mei Vavau mai; ko nga tamariki ïa a Tangiia.
Kua akakoro ana a Tangiia, e iki ia Pa ei ariki; kua tapae aia ki Pora-pora e rave i taua angaanga ra. Kake atura ki uta ki Porapora, kua rokoia maira e Tutapu ki reira; kare atura taua angaanga ra i raveia, kua tae mai oki te tamaki. Ko te oro maira aia a Tangiia ki Rarotonga nei.
Teia to Imene no tei reira:—“Ariki iki ua ki Porapora ka tuarumakina.”
Kua noo a Tangiia ki Rarotonga nei, kua one i te enua nei. Kua tupu te au i tona tuatau; kua akatu aia i tetai ture:—“Auraka e- 276 tamaki, e akaki i te enua nei ki te tangata kia ki.” Kua akonoia taua ture ra i tei reira tuatau—kare e tamaki. Kua noo te tangata ma te au i reira; mate atu ra Tangiia.
I muri ake iaia kua tupu mai tetai ariki kino mei roto mai i te uanga ariki, ko Rongoie tona ingoa; ko Arapau te ingoa o tona metua vaine; e vaine aia na Makea-te-ratu. E rima te marama o taua tamaiti ra kia Makea-te-ratu, e rima marama ki te tane keia—kia Tinomanga Runanga. Kua anau ki vao, topa iora te ingoa ko Rongoie. E maata ake ra taua tamaiti, riro atura ei tamaiti kanga; i te pei aere i te tamaiti ki te toka, e te ta aere ki te rakau. Kikiia atu ra e te au metua vaine o taua au tamariki ra taua tamaiti ra, ki te puti. Mamae atura taua tamaiti ra i taua ingoa puti ra. Aere atu ra e ui ki te metua, i tona metua tikai; kua akakite maira te metua vaine ki taua tamaiti ra i taua tuatua ra, “E, na Makea koe; ko tou metua ïa.” Kua karanga atura te tamaiti ra ki te metua vaine, “E tuku koe iaku ka aere au ki toku metua.” Aere atura te tamaiti e kimi i tona metua, ia Makea; kitea iora e Takaia—koia te taunga ra i tei reira tuatau. Arataki atura ki roto i tona are, rave atura e tamaiti nona. Kua apii atura aia i taua tamaiti ra ki te au kino ravarai. Riro atura na taua tamaiti ra. Eaa, i taua rani tangata ra, a Tangiia! Koia te ariki i taia ai te tangata i tei reira tuatau, e keinga ïa ai; ko te tupuanga ïa i te kino ki runga i te enua nei.
These were the migrations:—First, Apopo-te-ivi-roa;11 he was a very tall man, and was from the Atu-apai.12His was a war party. He was smitten by the host of Iva,13 and died.
After Apopo, came the host of Iva;3 theirs also was a war fleet; Nga-peinga was the name (of the chief). That multitude was defeated by Kainuku and Te-aia. One part only of that host returned to Iva,14 the rest of them were killed.
After them came Te Marangai-riki,4 who was defeated by the people of Rarotonga.
This is the means they (the Rarotongans) sought to strengthen themselves; they planted in the place of battle a lot of posts, and made them of the same height as men, and armed them with Rau-uru (feathers?), and folded war sinnet round their heads so that they looked just like men standing in ranks. By the time they had finished their work it was dark. During the same night Marangai-riki came to fight, and they made war on one another, and they (Marangai-riki and his party) were destroyed that same night. Not one of them escaped. The place (of battle) is at Avarua, and is named Tearatupau.
After the above occurrences came Tangiia to this land, together with Karika. Tangiia landed at Vaikokopu, and Karika at Murivai. Tangiia lived at Taunarangi, which was the name of the place he stayed at when he first arrived at Ngatangiia. He came to Rarotonga (from Tahiti) through troubles arising out of the anger of his elder brother who wished to kill him.
The offence (reason of the anger) was the Atavakuru branch of- 277 breadfruit) of their sister Rakanui, (the fruit of) which had been eaten by Tutapu.15 Tangiia was incensed at this, and forbid Tutapu to eat the breadfruit. That was the cause of their quarrel, and also of Tangiia fleeing to Rarotonga. He came in distress, and not with the equipment of an ariki, so that it might be seen he was a great chief.
He came with his children, that is Tinomana, Te-rei, and Pa;16 the latter was an adopted child of Tangiia. Iro1718 was the real father and he was ariki of Vavau. And the mataiapos who followed him (Tangiia) are some of those whose descendants now live at Rarotonga. Then Tangiia called them after his own name, Ngati-tangiia. He had joined unto himself the party who had arrived at this land before him, and made them his own people, and he assumed to himself and his children the position of arikis over all the mataiaposof Tongaiti (who had arrived before him) so that he had under him everyone, as well as his own mataiapos.
This is the first work undertaken by Tangiia on his arrival at this land. He built a marae at Avarua, and when he had finished it he named that marae Iti-aka-raua, and gave it into the custody of Kainuku. Then he built a second one, and when it was finished he named it Iti-anga-te-ra, and this marae he also gave into the charge of Kainuku to guard. Tangiia did the same during his journeys to build maraes, even as far as Avarua, and assigned to each its guardian.
The mataiapos who first came to this land built their own maraes themselves, and they called the names of those maraes after the maraes of Avaiki, which names they brought with them. The names of the owners of these maraes were those of their ancestors, that they brought them with them so that they might not be lost. They (those names) are still to be found in Tahiti, Paumotu, and other lands at the present time.
Tangiia then set up his children, some as arikis, some as mataiapos, such as Tinomana and Te-rei; Pa was a great ariki even from Vavau. They were all children of Tangiia.
Tangiia had desired to install Pa as an ariki (at Vavau); he landed at Porapora19 for that purpose, but no sooner had he got ashore at Porapora than he was overtaken there by Tutapu. Consequently that purpose was not carried out, because strife intervened, and Tangiia had to flee to Rarotonga.
This is the “saying” in reference thereto:—“Set up an ariki at Porapora, he shall be overturned.”
Then Tangiia settled down in the land, and there was peace at that time. He made a law (as follows):—“Let there be no fighting, so that the land may be full of people.” He taught this lesson constantly in those days, so that men remained in peace; and then Tangiia died.
After his time there grew up a wicked ariki, from out of the ruling family, whose name was Rongoie;20Arapau was the name of his mother, and she was the wife of Makea-te-ratu. Five of the months of this child were of Makea, and five of the paramour Tinomana Runanga. When the child was born he was named Rongoie. After he had grown to boyhood he was given up to evil ways, throwing stones at children and striking them with sticks, &c. Then the mothers of those children reviled him, calling him a bastard. The boy was greatly pained by this name of bastard, and went to his parent, to his own mother, and she disclosed to him the truth, saying,- 278 “Oh, you are by Makea; he is your father.” Then said the child to his mother, “Let me go, to look for my father.”
He then went to seek for his father Makea and was seen by Takaia,21 who was the priest in those times, who led him to his own house and adopted him. Then he taught that child all kinds of evil things; and the child learnt them all. So this child became a trouble to the great tribe of Tangiia.
He (Rongoie) was the chief who commenced the killing of men at that period, and likewise the eating of them; then began evils and troubles in the land.
Table showing the position of Whiti-kaupeka with respect to the migrations to New Zealand, and to well known chiefs of the present day. Referred to on page 209. Tamatea-pokai-whenua is alleged to have come to New Zealand in the Takitumu canoe; he belonged to the people named “Te-hono-i-Wairua.” The information is derived from Sir W. L. Buller's address to the Native Land Court in 1882, at the hearing of the title to the Rangatira block of land, Rangitikei District.
Kahungunu is usually believed to be the father, not the brother of Kahukuranui, as shown above.
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